THE EARLY PRIMARY SCHOOL SIGNS: AGES 5-7 YEARS.

If a pupil, between 5-7 years of age, displays any of the following characteristics, the teacher should interveneThe presence of a number of these characteristics or those on the previous checklist for 3-5 year olds may indicate that the child is developing dyslexic learning difficulties. When considering these characteristics, it is important to remain mindful of the following:

  1. No child will have all these characteristics.
  2. Some characteristics are more common than others.
  3. All children will have some of these characteristics to some degree.

The number of symptoms seen in a particular child does not give an indication as to whether the dyslexia is mild or severe. It is important to consider if the behaviours are chronic and appear in clusters

Speaking and Listening:

1.      Has difficulty separating words into sounds, and blending sounds to form words (phonemic awareness)

2.      Has difficulty repeating multi-syllabic words (e.g., emeny for enemy; pasghetti for spaghetti)

Early Literacy: difficulties with reading, writing and spelling

1.      Is slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds (alphabetic principle)

2.      Has difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation)

3.      Has poor word attack skills, especially for new words

4.      Confuses small or ‘easy’ words: at/tosaid/anddoes/goes)

5.      May make constant reading and spelling errors including:

–          Letter reversals (e.g., d for b as in dog for bog

–          Letter inversions (e.g., m for w)

–          Letter transpositions (e.g.,  felt and left)

–          Word reversals (e.g., tip for pit)

–          Word substitutions – house for home

6.      Reads slowly with little expression or fluency (oral reading is slow and laborious)

7.     Has more difficulty with function words (e.g., istoof) than with content words (e.g., cloudrunyellow)

8.    Has difficulty building up a sight vocabulary

9.    Reading comprehension is below expectation due to poor accuracy, fluency and speed

10. Reading comprehension is better than single-word reading

11. Listening comprehension is better than reading comprehension

Arithmetic: difficulty in performing arithmetic operations or in understanding basic concepts

1.      Has trouble learning facts (e.g. tables)

Reasoning: difficulty in organising and integrating thoughts

1.      May be slow to learn new skills, relying heavily on memorising without understanding

2.      Has difficulty planning or organising

3.      Has trouble learning to tell the time with an analogue clock or watch

Motor coordination: difficulty coordinating eye and hand

1.      Uses awkward pencil grip

2.      Has slow and poor quality handwriting

3.      Has poor fine motor co-ordination

The impact of dyslexia as a barrier to learning varies in degree according to the learning and teaching environment. People with dyslexia will benefit from early diagnosis and with support can finds ways to learn which suit them better.

If given the appropriate help for their areas of difficulty, there is no reason why a dyslexic person should not be a high achiever and if desired complete third level education.

THE PRIMARY SCHOOL SIGNS: AGES 7-12 YEARS.

If a pupil, between 7 and 12 years of age, displays any of the following characteristics, the teacher should interveneThe presence of a number of these characteristics or those on the previous checklist for 5-7 year olds may indicate that the child has dyslexic learning difficulties. When considering these characteristics, it is important to remain mindful of the following:

a.     No child will have all these characteristics.

b.    Some characteristics are more common than others.

c.     All children will have some of these characteristics to some degree.

d.    The number of symptoms seen in a particular child does not give an indication as to whether the dyslexia is mild or severe. It is important to consider if the behaviours are chronic and appear in clusters.

 

Reading:

1.   Has continued difficulty reading text aloud or silently

2.   Reading achievement is below expectation

3. Is slow at discerning and learning prefixes, suffixes, root words and other morphemes as    part of reading and spelling strategies

4.   Poor reading accuracy, fluency or speed interferes with reading comprehension

 

Spelling:

1.  Spelling is inappropriate for age and general ability (e.g., spelling the same word differently on the same page, use of bizarre spelling patterns, frequent letter omissions, additions and transpositions)

2.   Poor spelling contributes to poor written expression (e.g., may avoid use of unfamiliar words)

 

Arithmetic: difficulty in performing arithmetic operations or in understanding basic concepts

1.    Experiences language-related problems in math (e.g., when reading word problems and directions, confuses numbers and symbols)

 

Memory

1.     Still confuses letter sequences (e.g., soiled for solidleft for felt

2.     Is unable to learn multiplication tables by rote

3.     Still confuses some directional words (e.g., left and right)

4.     Has slow or poor recall of facts

5.     Forgets to bring in or hand in homework

6.     Has difficulty remembering what day or month it is

7.     Has difficulty remembering his/her own telephone number or birthday

 

Reasoning: difficulty in organising and integrating thoughts

1.   Lacks understanding of other people’s body language and facial expressions

2.   Has trouble with non-literal or figurative language (e.g., idioms, proverbs)

3.   Has poor planning and organisational skills

4.   Has poor time management

 

Motor coordination: difficulty coordinating eye and hand

1. Has slow, dysfluent and/or illegible handwriting

 

Behaviour:

1.   Uses avoidance tactics when asked to read orally or write

2.    Lacks self-confidence and has a poor self-image

The impact of dyslexia as a barrier to learning varies in degree according to the learning and teaching environment. People with dyslexia will benefit from early diagnosis and with support can finds ways to learn which suit them better.

If given the appropriate help for their areas of difficulty, there is no reason why a dyslexic person should not be a high achiever and if desired complete third level education.

Share This